What are the types of abdominal injury?

Abdominal injuries include severe subcutaneous haemorrhage, laceration of the abdominal wall, intra-abdominal haemorrhage, rupture of the liver, rupture of the diaphragm, perirenal haemorrhage, and puncture wounds to the stomach and intestines.

What are 4 potential problems of abdominal injuries?

Muscle guarding, back and flank pain, nausea, vomiting, and even shock are possible with significant trauma to the kidneys. With enough force transferred to the abdominal area, intestinal damage and even bowel perforation can occur.

What is the most common abdominal injury?

Pattern of abdominal organ injuries

Among the abdominal organ injuries, liver (36%) and spleen (32%) were most common injured, followed by kidney (18%), small bowel (12%), large bowel (5%), urinary bladder (4%), and diaphragmatic (2%) injuries [Table 2].

What are the top 3 most commonly injured organs in the abdomen and why?

The most commonly injured organs are the spleen, liver, retroperitoneum, small bowel, kidneys (see the image below), bladder, colorectum, diaphragm, and pancreas. Men tend to be affected slightly more often than women. Blunt abdominal trauma. Right kidney injury with blood in perirenal space.

How do you manage abdominal injuries?

  1. Loosen clothing.
  2. Lay casualty down.
  3. Elevate legs or bend knees or place in the fetal position.
  5. Seek medical advice.
  6. If the casualty is more comfortable they may lay in the lateral position with their legs flexed.

What are two of the three classic signs of an acute abdominal injury?

Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, tenderness, rigidity, and bruising of the external abdomen.

What are the complications of abdominal injuries?

Complications associated with blunt abdominal trauma include but are not limited to the following:
  • Missed injuries.
  • Delays in diagnosis.
  • Delays in treatment.
  • Iatrogenic injuries.
  • Intra-abdominal sepsis and abscess.
  • Inadequate resuscitation.
  • Delayed splenic rupture.

What is the first aid for abdominal pain?

Drink plenty of clear fluids such as water. Reduce your intake of coffee, tea and alcohol as these can make the pain worse. When you are allowed to eat again, start with clear liquids, then progress to bland foods such as crackers, rice, bananas or toast. Your doctor may advise you to avoid certain foods.

What is penetrating abdominal injury?

DEFINITIONS: Penetrating abdominal injury: Any penetrating injury that could have entered the peritoneal cavity or retroperitoneum inflicting damage on the abdominal contents. In general, the entry wounds for an abdominal injury extend from the fifth intercostal space to the perineum.

What are the complications of abdominal injuries?

Complications associated with blunt abdominal trauma include but are not limited to the following:
  • Missed injuries.
  • Delays in diagnosis.
  • Delays in treatment.
  • Iatrogenic injuries.
  • Intra-abdominal sepsis and abscess.
  • Inadequate resuscitation.
  • Delayed splenic rupture.

Which 5 abdominal organs are most often injured in sports?

Injuries to the stomach, small and large intestine, spleen, liver, kidneys and pancreas can occur in sports. Injuries to liver and spleen can cause severe bleeding and can be life threatening.

What happens when the stomach is injured?

When there is a penetrating injury, a small amount of external bleeding may occur through the wound. When a hollow organ is injured, the contents of the organ (for example, stomach acid, stool, or urine) may enter the abdominal cavity and cause irritation and inflammation (peritonitis).

Why is the abdomen vulnerable to damage?

Abdominal organs are relatively susceptible to injury because: The relatively small size of the patient allows a single impact to injure multiple organ systems. The abdominal wall is relatively thin (less muscle & less subcutaneous fat), so it provides less protection.

Which organ is most commonly injured in blunt abdominal trauma?

The liver is the most commonly injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma and the second most commonly injured organ in penetrating abdominal trauma [3-6]. The liver is a highly vascular organ located in the right upper quadrant (figure 1) of the abdomen and is susceptible to injury from traumatic mechanisms.

What are the five most reliable signs & symptoms of blunt abdominal trauma?

Besides pain, the patient may present with bleeding per rectum, unstable vital signs, and the presence of peritonitis. The physical exam may reveal marks from a lap belt, ecchymosis, abdominal distention, absent bowel sounds and tenderness to palpation.

How do you assess abdominal trauma?

Gentle palpation of the abdomen and pelvis should be performed. Any increase in pain or instability should raise suspicion of internal injury or pelvic fracture. Abdominal pain, rigidity, and guarding are considered classic signs of internal injury.

What is visceral injury?

Visceral injuries are injuries to all internal organs. Abdominal injuries are described more frequently than thoracic injuries. Abdominal injuries in young children in the absence of a history of significant trauma are rare. Many abusive abdominal injuries, in particular hepatic lesions, are occult.

What is a shearing abdominal injury?

Shearing forces created by sudden deceleration can cause lacerations of both solid and hollow organs at their points of attachment to the peritoneum. They may also create tears or cause stretch injuries to the arteries, resulting in infarction of the distal organ.

What is abdominal wall contusion?

An abdominal contusion is caused by a direct blow to the abdomen, which results in bruising of the superficial abdominal skin or deeper to the musculature. The signs and symptoms of an abdominal contusion are pain and tightness in the area of the injury.

What is ATLS protocol?

ATLS protocol mandates that a spine injury be assumed for all injured patients and rigid immobilization employed. At the scene, the patient should be immobilized with a cervical collar, head immobilization device, and spine backboard.

What is blunt force trauma to the abdomen?

Blunt force trauma occurs when an object strikes the abdomen or the abdomen strikes against an object. A common example of this occurs during an automobile accident. During blunt trauma, the abdominal organs can be injured at three distinct times.

What is a Hemoperitoneum?

Hemoperitoneum, sometimes also called intra-abdominal hemorrhage or intraperitoneal hemorrhage, is a type of internal bleeding in which blood gathers in your peritoneal cavity. This is the space between your organs and the inner lining of your abdominal wall.