What is the RIFLE classification system?

RIFLE, a newly developed international consensus classification for acute kidney injury, defines three grades of severity – risk (class R), injury (class I) and failure (class F) – but has not yet been evaluated in a clinical series.

What is the classification of acute kidney injury?

The RIFLE classification
Class .GFR .
Injury↑ SCr × 2 or ↓ GFR >50%
Failure↑ SCr × 3 or ↓ GFR >75% or if baseline SCr ≥353.6 μmol/L(≥4 mg/dL) ↑ SCr >44.2 μmol/L(>0.5 mg/dL)
Loss of kidney functionComplete loss of kidney function >4 weeks
End-stage kidney diseaseComplete loss of kidney function >3 months

What is the RIFLE criteria for acute kidney injury?

In RIFLE, failure is defined as a three-fold increase of serum creatinine or decrease in GFR of >75% or a urine output of <0.3 ml/kg per h for >24 h or anuria for >12 h. Alternatively, failure also is defined by a serum creatinine of >4 mg/dl (353.6 μmol/L) with an acute rise of 0.5 mg/dl (42.2 μmol/L).

What does RIFLE stand for?

RIFLE is an acronym of Risk, Injury, and Failure; and Loss; and End-stage kidney disease.Table 1.

What is the management of acute kidney injury?

Treating acute kidney injury

to increase your intake of water and other fluids if you’re dehydrated. antibiotics if you have an infection. to stop taking certain medicines (at least until the problem is sorted) a urinary catheter, a thin tube used to drain the bladder if there’s a blockage.

Why is it called acute kidney injury?

Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly, usually in less than a few days. Acute kidney failure is most common in people who are already hospitalized, particularly in critically ill people who need intensive care.

What does rifle stand for in AKI?

In May 2004, a new classification, the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease) classification, was proposed in order to define and stratify the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI).

Why is it called a rifle?

Rifle: A firearm having rifling in the bore and designed to be fired from the shoulder. Also called a long gun. Rifling: The spiral grooves cut or swaged inside a gun barrel that gives the bullet a spinning motion.

What are the 4 types of rifles?

There are various types of rifles, most notably the automatic rifle, the bolt-action rifle, the lever-action rifle and the semi-automatic rifle.

What are the 3 types of acute renal failure?

Prerenal acute renal failure is characterized by diminished renal blood flow (60 to 70 percent of cases). In intrinsic acute renal failure, there is damage to the renal parenchyma (25 to 40 percent of cases). Postrenal acute renal failure occurs because of urinary tract obstruction (5 to 10 percent of cases).

What are the stages of kidney injury?

Stage 1: Kidney damage with normal or increased GFR (>90 mL/min/1.73 m 2) Stage 2: Mild reduction in GFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m 2) Stage 3a: Moderate reduction in GFR (45-59 mL/min/1.73 m 2) Stage 3b: Moderate reduction in GFR (30-44 mL/min/1.73 m 2)

What is Kdigo classification?

The KDIGO definition for CKD is not new. “CKD is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function, present for >3 months, with implications for health,” and requires one of two criteria documented or inferred for >3 months: either GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or markers of kidney damage, including albuminuria.

What are the signs and symptoms of each classification of AKI?

What are the signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury?
  • Too little urine leaving the body.
  • Swelling in legs, ankles, and around the eyes.
  • Fatigue or tiredness.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Confusion.
  • Nausea.
  • Seizures or coma in severe cases.
  • Chest pain or pressure.

What are the 5 stages of kidney failure?

Five stages of chronic kidney disease
  • Stage 1 with normal or high GFR (GFR > 90 mL/min)
  • Stage 2 Mild CKD (GFR = 60-89 mL/min)
  • Stage 3A Moderate CKD (GFR = 45-59 mL/min)
  • Stage 3B Moderate CKD (GFR = 30-44 mL/min)
  • Stage 4 Severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 mL/min)
  • Stage 5 End Stage CKD (GFR <15 mL/min)

What are 3 kidney failure treatments?

The main treatments are: lifestyle changes – to help you stay as healthy as possible. medicine – to control associated problems, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol. dialysis – treatment to replicate some of the kidney’s functions, which may be necessary in advanced (stage 5) CKD.

What are complications of acute kidney injury?

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often associated with systemic complications including volume overload; electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, particularly hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis; nutritional and gastrointestinal disturbances; anemia and bleeding diatheses, and increased risk of infection.

What staging is used for AKI?

Once a diagnosis of AKI has been established its severity can be determined using the KDIGO staging system.

What are 5 risk factors associated with AKI?

The meta-analysis showed that male sex (OR = 1.37), older age (MD = 5.63), smoking (OR = 1.23), obesity (OR = 1.12), hypertension (OR=1.85), diabetes (OR=1.71), pneumopathy (OR = 1.36), cardiovascular disease (OR = 1.98), cancer (OR = 1.26), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 4.56), mechanical ventilation (OR = 8.61) …

What is the most common acute kidney injury?

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is the term used to designate AKI resulting from damage to the tubules. It is the most common type of intrinsic kidney injury. AKI from glomerular damage occurs in severe cases of acute glomerulonephritis (GN).

What body systems are affected by acute kidney injury?

Acute kidney injury (AKI) causes hemodynamic-, humoral-, and immunologic changes, which leads to dysfunction of distant organs including lung, heart, brain, liver, intestine and immune system.

Which drugs cause AKI?

Aminoglycoside antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), contrast agents, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are the most common cause of AKI in hospitalized patients (2).