What are alkaloids and its classification?

Often, alkaloids are classified based on their chemical structure. For example, alkaloids that contain a ring system, which is called indole, are referred to as indole alkaloids. Based on the principal classes of alkaloids are the tropanes, pyrrolidines, indoles, isoquinolines, and steroids and terpenoids.

Which alkaloids contain indole ring?

Two plants that contain indole alkaloids are Passiflora incarnata L. (passion flower) and Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil (kratom), while the other two plants that did not show the presence of indole alkaloids are Piper methysticum G. Forst (kava) and Valeriana officinalis L., deserve special attention.

What is true pseudo and Proto alkaloids?

True alkaloids and Protoalkaloids are derived from amino acids, whereas pseudoalkaloids are not derived from these compounds. True alkaloids are derived from amino acids and they share a heterocyclic ring with nitrogen. These alkaloids are extremely reactive substances with biological activity even in small doses.

What are heterocyclic alkaloids?

Heterocyclic alkaloids are one of the most challenging natural product classes to characterize, not only because of their structurally unique skeletons that arise from distinct amino acids, but also because of their potential bioactivities.

What is indole ring?

Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound with the formula C8H7N. It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring. Indole is widely distributed in the natural environment and can be produced by a variety of bacteria.

What are indole alkaloids used for?

A number of terpene indole alkaloids are used as anti-cancer, anti-malarial, and anti-arrhythmic agents (Fig. 1.1). In the US, vinblastine (Velban) and vincristine (Oncovin)12 are used clinically to treat cancers including Hodgkin’s disease,13 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,14 and Kaposi’s sarcoma.

What is the general structure feature of an alkaloid?

An alkaloid is a naturally occurring, organic substance, that contains nitrogen and typically a ring structure. It is basic and can accept protons in reactions. Most commercially available alkaloids are directly derived from plants, but a few such as caffeine can be synthetically made as well.

What are the properties of alkaloids?

Alkaloids are heterocyclic compound containing nitrogen in a negative oxidation state due to which they can form salt with acids making them water soluble. Most of them are colorless, crystalline solid, bitter in taste and having a definite melting point.

Which heterocyclic ring is most aromatic?

Aromatic Heterocycles. Benzene is the archetypical aromatic compound. It is planar, bond angles=120º, all carbon atoms in the ring are sp2 hybridized, and the pi-orbitals are occupied by 6 electrons.

What is indole alkaloids in pharmacognosy?

Indole (1-H-indole) is a benzopyrrole in which the benzene and pyrrole rings are through the 2, 3-positions of the pyrrole. The indole nucleus is found in a large number of naturally occurring compounds. It is of commercial importance as a component of perfumes.

What is indole alkaloid in plants?

Indole alkaloids are a class of alkaloids containing a structural moiety of indole; many indole alkaloids also include isoprene groups and are thus called terpene indole or secologanin tryptamine alkaloids. Containing more than 4100 known different compounds, it is one of the largest classes of alkaloids.

Is reserpine an indole alkaloid?

Reserpine is an indole alkaloid extracted from Rauwolfia serpentine roots, an Indian climbing shrub. Reserpine has FDA approval since 1955 and is one of the first agents developed to treat hypertension in clinical practice.

Which amino acid contains indole?

Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the largest of the amino acids. It is also a derivative of alanine, having an indole substituent on the β carbon. The indole functional group absorbs strongly in the near ultraviolet part of the spectrum.

Which is the example of steroidal alkaloids?

Pregnane Alkaloids. Pregnane alkaloids are also called C-21 steroidal alkaloids, which are mainly found in the Holarrhena, Kibatalia, Paravallaris, and Marsdenia genera of Apocynaceae as well as the Sarcococca and Pachysandra genera of the Buxaceae.

What are alkaloids examples?

Alkaloids are nitrogenous compounds of low molecular weight. They are mainly produced by plants and animals for defense. Examples of alkaloids include morphine, codeine, coniine, quinine, scopolamine, hyoscamine, atropine, caffeine, sangunarine, berberine, etc.

What is the structure of indole?

Are amino acids alkaloids?

Alkaloids are amino acid-derived nitrogenous compounds that have important therapeutic values, including anticancer and antimalarial effects [5].

What steroid means?

What are steroids? Steroids are a man-made version of chemicals, known as hormones, that are made naturally in the human body. Steroids are designed to act like these hormones to reduce inflammation. They’re also known as corticosteroids, and are different to anabolic steroids used by bodybuilders and athletes.

What are alkaloids drugs?

An alkaloid is a class of naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing compounds that are frequently found in the plant kingdom. Many alkaloids are valuable medicinal agents that can be utilized to treat various diseases including malaria, diabetics, cancer, cardiac dysfunction etc.

How do you name alkaloids?

There is no unique method for naming alkaloids. Many individual names are formed by adding the suffix “ine” to the species or genus name. For example, atropine is isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna; strychnine is obtained from the seed of the Strychnine tree (Strychnos nux-vomica L.).

What are the chemical properties of alkaloids?

Properties of alkaloids:

Alkaloids are colourless, crystalline, non-volatile, solids; a few such as coniine and nicotine are liquids and a few even coloured, viz. berberine is yellow. The free bases (i.e. alkaloids themselves) are insoluble in water but soluble in most of the organic solvents.