What are the three main classifications of thyroid diseases?

Euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, clinical states reflecting normal, excessive, or defective levels of thyroid hormones, were the basis of classification (1, 2).

What are the two major categories of hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism is majorly divided into two categories, primary and secondary (central) hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is termed primary when the thyroid gland itself is not able to produce adequate amounts of thyroid hormone.

What is the classification of the main thyroid hormones?

The thyroid gland produces three hormones: Triiodothyronine, also known as T3. Tetraiodothyronine, also called thyroxine or T4. Calcitonin.

What is primary and secondary hypothyroidism?

Primary hypothyroidism occurs after destruction of the thyroid gland because of autoimmunity (the most common cause), or medical intervention such as surgery, radioiodine, and radiation. Secondary hypothyroidism occurs after pituitary or hypothalamic damage, and results in insufficient production of TSH.

What is the most common type of hypothyroidism?

Hashimoto’s disease, an autoimmune disorder, is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. With this disease, your immune system attacks the thyroid. The thyroid becomes inflamed and can’t make enough thyroid hormones.

What is the difference between central and primary hypothyroidism?

The vast majority of people with hypothyroidism have primary hypothyroidism, often due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Central hypothyroidism is much less common and is usually due to a tumor in the pituitary gland that disrupts its function and causes hypopituitarism.

What is secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism?

Secondary hypothyroidism occurs when the hypothalamus produces insufficient thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or the pituitary produces insufficient TSH. Sometimes, deficient TSH secretion due to deficient TRH secretion is termed tertiary hypothyroidism.

What is secondary hypothyroidism?

Definition. What is Hypothyroidism Secondary? Secondary hypothyroidism involves decreased activity of the thyroid caused by failure of the pituitary gland. Alternative Names: Pituitary hypothyroidism.

What is primary and secondary hyperthyroidism?

It can be primary or secondary: Primary hyperthyroidism is the term used when the pathology is within the thyroid gland. Secondary hyperthyroidism is the term used when the thyroid gland is stimulated by excessive thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the circulation.

What are the types of hyperthyroidism?

There are several forms of hyperthyroidism, including:
  • Graves’ disease (diffuse toxic goiter). Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. …
  • Toxic nodular goiter (also called multinodular goiter). …
  • Thyroiditis.

Is Hashimoto’s disease primary or secondary hypothyroidism?

The most common cause of primary hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. This is an autoimmune disease that causes your immune system to mistakenly attack your thyroid. You might also develop primary hypothyroidism for a number of other reasons.

What are the symptoms of primary hypothyroidism?

Clinical (overt) hypothyroidism is diagnosed on the basis of characteristic clinical features (e.g., mental slowing, depression, dementia, weight gain, constipation, dry skin, hair loss, cold intolerance, hoarse voice, irregular menstruation, infertility, muscle stiffness and pain, bradycardia, hypercholesterolemia), a …

What are 4 major clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism?

The classic symptoms of hyperthyroidism include heat intolerance, tremor, palpitations, anxiety, weight loss despite a normal or increased appetite, increased frequency of bowel movements, and shortness of breath.

What is TSH normal range?

TSH normal values are 0.5 to 5.0 mIU/L. Pregnancy, a history of thyroid cancer, history of pituitary gland disease, and older age are some situations when TSH is optimally maintained in different range as guided by an endocrinologist.

What causes hypothyroid?

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is an autoimmune disorder known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Autoimmune disorders occur when your immune system produces antibodies that attack your own tissues. Sometimes this process involves your thyroid gland.

What level of TSH indicates hyperthyroidism?

A low TSH level—below 0.4 mU/L—indicates an overactive thyroid, also known as hyperthyroidism. This means your body is producing an excess amount of thyroid hormone. What causes high TSH levels? A high TSH level—above 4.5 mU/L—indicates an underactive thyroid, also known as hypothyroidism.

What is the symptoms of high TSH?

fatigue. weight gain. swelling of the face and neck. increased sensitivity to cold temperatures.

How do you diagnose hypothyroidism?

The main way to diagnose hypothyroidism is a blood test called the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test. Your healthcare provider may also order blood tests for conditions like Hashimoto’s disease. If the thyroid is enlarged, your provider may be able to feel it during a physical exam during an appointment.

What if T3 and T4 is normal and TSH is high?

If your results show high total T3 levels or high free T3 levels, it may mean you have hyperthyroidism. Low T3 levels may mean you have hypothyroidism, a condition in which your body doesn’t make enough thyroid hormone. T3 test results are often compared with T4 and TSH test results to help diagnose thyroid disease.

At what TSH level should hypothyroidism be treated?

If your TSH level is higher than 10 mIU/L, you should start treatment, because you will very likely develop symptoms of an underactive thyroid, even if you don’t have them now.

What TSH level is considered hypothyroidism?

Normal and Abnormal TSH Ranges

TSH of more than 4.0/mU/L with a low T4 level indicates hypothyroidism. If your TSH is more than 4.0 mU/L and your T4 level is normal, this may prompt your physician to test your serum anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies.

What is the treatment of high TSH?

Standard treatment for hypothyroidism involves daily use of the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine (Levo-T, Synthroid, others). This oral medication restores adequate hormone levels, reversing the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. You’ll likely start to feel better soon after you start treatment.