What is surface active agent and HLB scale?

HLB Scale is essentially a ranking of how hydrophilic an amphiphilic molecule (surfactant) is. Developed by Griffin (1949), the HLB Scale ranks the tendency of a surfactant to be hydrophilic or hydrophobic (lipophilic).

What are surfactants give its classification?

There are 4 types of surfactants with a brief review of each as follows. These classifications are based upon the composition of the polarity of the head group: nonionic, anionic, cationic, amphoteric. A non-ionic surfactant has no charge groups in its head. The head of an ionic surfactant carries a net charge.

What is the properties of surfactant if the HLB values?

The surfactant with a lower HLB has a lipophilic character. Spans, which are sorbitan esters, have lipophilic properties and low HLB values (1.8-8.6). Tweens, which are polyoxyethylene derivatives of spans, are hydrophilic and have high HLB values (9.6-16.7).

What is HLB system of emulsifying agent?

The HLB number constitutes an indicative measure of the Hydrophile Lipophile Balance of the emulsifier and allows predictions to be made as to whether, overall, the molecule has a mainly hydrophile or lipophile character.

What are surface active agents give examples?

Sodium stearate is a good example of a surfactant. It is the most common surfactant in soap. Another common surfactant is 4-(5-dodecyl)benzenesulfonate. Other examples include docusate (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate), alkyl ether phosphates, benzalkaonium chloride (BAC), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS).

What is a surface-active agent?

Surface active agents (SAAs) are molecules with the capacity to adsorb to solid surfaces and/or fluid interfaces, a property that allows them to act as multifunctional ingredients (e.g., wetting and dispersion agents, emulsifiers, foaming and anti-foaming agents, lubricants, etc.)

What is HLB and its application?

An HLB value of 0 corresponds to a completely lipophilic/hydrophobic molecule, and a value of 20 corresponds to a completely hydrophilic/lipophobic molecule. The HLB value can be used to predict the surfactant properties of a molecule: < 10 : Lipid-soluble (water-insoluble) > 10 : Water-soluble (lipid-insoluble)

Who introduced HLB scale?

The HLB number scale, introduced by Griffin in 1949, was the first-ever successful attempt of a quantitative characterization of the polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactants.

How do you use HLB value?

The total percentage of the oily phase is 37 and the proportion of each is:
  1. Liquid paraffin 35/37 x 100 = 94.6% Wool fat. 1/37 x 100 = 2.7%
  2. Cetyl alcohol 1/37 x 100 = 2.7% The total required HLB number is obtained as follows: …
  3. Wool fat (HLB 10) 2.7/100 x 10 = 0.3. …
  4. 2.7/100 X 15 = 0.4. Total required HLB.

What is surfactant in pharmaceutics?

Surfactant is a general name for substances that absorb to surfaces or interfaces to reduce surface or interfacial tension. These agents aid wetting and dispersion of hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients and they usually act by reducing the interfacial tension between solids and liquids in suspensions.

What is a surfactant and what are its properties?

surfactant, also called surface-active agent, substance such as a detergent that, when added to a liquid, reduces its surface tension, thereby increasing its spreading and wetting properties. In the dyeing of textiles, surfactants help the dye penetrate the fabric evenly.

What is surfactant PDF?

Surfactants form a unique class of chemical compounds. This review provides an introduction to the nature and physical properties of surfactants, emphasizing their ability to radically alter surface and interfacial properties and to self-associate and solubilize themselves in micelles.

What is surfactant used for?

The main purpose of the surfactants is to decrease the surface and interfacial tension and stabilize the interface. Without surfactants washing laundry would be difficult and many food products like mayonnaise and ice cream would not exist.

What is the difference between anionic and nonionic surfactants?

The key difference between anionic cationic and nonionic surfactants is that anionic surfactants contain negatively charged functional groups, and cationic surfactants contain positively charged functional groups, whereas nonionic surfactants have no net electrical charge.

What is the structure of surfactant?

Surfactants are substances with molecular structures consisting of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic part. The hydrophobic part is normally a hydrocarbon (linear or branched), whereas the hydrophilic part consists of ionic or strongly polar groups, e.g., polyglycol ether groups.

What is the difference between ionic and nonionic surfactants?

The main difference between ionic and nonionic surfactants is that ionic surfactants are formulated with cations or anions, while non-ionic surfactants are formulated without cations or anions.

Which is an example of cationic surfactant?

For example- C16H33N⊕(CH3)3Cl⊝

What is the example of non ionic surfactant?

Examples of nonionic surfactant molecules are monoglyceride of long-chain fatty acids, polyoxyethylenated alkylphenol, and polyoxyethylenated alcohol (Rosen and Kunjappu, 2012).

What are cationic agents?

Cationic detergents are quaternary ammonium salts of amines with acetate, chlorides or Bromides as anions. They have cations at the soluble ends of the chain. Cations are long-chain hydrocarbons having a positive charge on N atom. Eg: Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide.

What is the pH of cationic surfactant?

When the cationic surfactant (Dinoram-S) is added to the aqueous phase, the emulsions display a better stability, principally in a very acidic medium (pH 2).

What are anionic surfactants?

Anionic surfactants are all surfactants that carry a negatively charged head group. In principle, any negatively charged functional group that can complex with a counterion may lend itself to be a cationic surfactant.