What does bivalent vaccine mean?

A vaccine that works by stimulating an immune response against two different antigens, such as two different viruses or other microorganisms.

Are there any side effects from the COVID-19 vaccines?

Like all medicines, the COVID-19 vaccines can cause side effects, but not everyone gets them. Most side effects are mild and should not last longer than a week, such as: a sore arm from the injection.

Can parents refuse to have their child vaccinated against COVID-19?

Yes. The vaccination is not mandatory. Parents will be asked to give their consent for the vaccination. Children may express a wish to have the vaccine and may have the capacity to provide informed consent themselves.

Can I go abroad if I don’t have the COVID-19 vaccine?

If you have not been fully vaccinated, you should continue to follow the entry requirements of the country you are travelling to, such as proof of a negative COVID-19 test on arrival. You should carefully research the requirements of your destination country before travelling.

What are the most common adverse reactions to the COVID-19 vaccine?

The most frequent adverse reactions in trials were pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, myalgia (muscle pains), chills, arthralgia (joint pains), and fever; these were each reported in more than 1 in 10 people.

How long can possible COVID-19 vaccine side effects last?

Side effects generally go away in a few days. Even if you dont experience any side effects, your body is building protection against the virus that causes COVID-19. Adverse events (serious health problems) are rare but can cause long-term health problems.

Do I need a negative COVID-19 test to travel?

Pre-departure travel tests (‘fit to fly’) You may need proof of a negative COVID-19 test before travelling abroad. Providers often call these fit to fly tests. The testing requirements are set by the country you want to travel to, and sometimes the airline you’re flying with.

Private providers offering these tests must meet the government’s minimum standards for general population testing services in order to legally provide the services. We do not currently host a separate list for ‘fit to fly’.

Is Canada dropping Covid restrictions?

After two and a half years, Canada is dropping its remaining restrictions, including testing and quarantine requirements, effective Oct. 1.

Does having a kidney disease make me high risk for COVID-19?

Having chronic kidney disease of any stage can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

Is the COVID-19 vaccine safe?

The clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines have shown them to be effective and acceptably safe; however, as part of its statutory functions, the MHRA is responsible for monitoring these vaccines on an ongoing basis to ensure their benefits continue to outweigh any risks.

Does the COVID-19 AstraZeneca vaccine contain any ingredients that can cause COVID-19?

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca stimulates the body’s natural defences (immune system). It causes the body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against the virus. This will help to protect you against COVID-19 in the future. None of the ingredients in this vaccine can cause COVID-19.

Does having a kidney disease make me high risk for COVID-19?

Having chronic kidney disease of any stage can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

Who are at higher risk of developing serious illness from COVID-19?

Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

What is COVID-19 genomic sequencing?

Genomic sequencing is laboratory analysis that identifies a virus’s genetic make-up, allowing new variants or mutations in existing variants to be detected.

How does the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine work?

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca stimulates the body’s natural defences (immune system). It causes the body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against the virus. This will help to protect you against COVID-19 in the future. None of the ingredients in this vaccine can cause COVID-19.

What is the natural reservoir for SARS-CoV-2?

The most likely ecological reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2 are bats, but it is believed that the virus jumped the species barrier to humans from another intermediate animal host. This intermediate animal host could be a domestic food animal, a wild animal, or a domesticated wild animal which has not yet been identified.

What are ‘nudgeboxes’ and what are they used for?

5,000 DNA ‘Nudgebox’ machines, supplied by DnaNudge, will be rolled out across NHS hospitals in the UK to analyse DNA in nose swabs, providing a positive or negative result for COVID-19 in 90 minutes, at the point of care. The machines will process up to 15 tests on the spot each day without the need for a laboratory.

What is an R value in an epidemic?

In an epidemic, one of the most important numbers is R – the reproduction number. If this is below one, then on average each infected person will infect fewer than one other person; the number of new infections will fall over time.

The lower the number, the faster the number of new infections will fall. When R is above one, the number of new infections is accelerating; the higher the number the faster the virus spreads through the population.

What is Pfizer/BioNTech bivalent COVID-19 vaccine?

The clinical trial of the Pfizer/BioNTech bivalent vaccine showed a strong immune response against the Omicron BA.1 variant as well as the original strain. Bivalent vaccines are helping us to meet the challenge of an ever-evolving virus, to help protect people against COVID-19 variants.

What are public health and social measures (PHSMs)?

Public health and social measures (PHSMs) are measures or actions by individuals, institutions, communities, local and national governments and international bodies to slow or stop the spread of an infectious disease, such as COVID-19.

Who might benefit from dexamethasone if they have COVID-19?

Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid used in a wide range of conditions for its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects.

It was tested in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the United Kingdom’s national clinical trial RECOVERY and was found to have benefits for critically ill patients.