What is altered passive eruption?

Altered Passive Eruption (APE) is a clinical situation produced by excessive gum overlapping over the enamel limits, resulting in a short clinical crown appearance, that gives the sensation of hidden teeth.

How is an altered passive eruption diagnosed?

depending on the position of the soft tissue and of the bone ridge in relation to the CEJ. In this case, we faced a Type 1 (gingiva coronal to the CEJ) Sub-type B (bone crest near the CEJ). The diagnosis is made by measuring the clinical length of the teeth, and matching it to the peri-apical radiography.

What is altered active eruption?

Altered active eruption (AAE) occurs when teeth achieve the opposite relationship to the occlusal plane prematurely and the osseous crest is on or very close to the cemento-enamel junction. Thus, correct understanding of biologic events related to APE and AAE should be considered in the classification of a gummy smile.

When does passive eruption happen?

By contrast, passive eruption is a biologic process whereby tooth eruption occurs normally. During this normal tooth eruption the dentogingival junction shifts apically. This process occurs when active eruption is complete and may continue until the early or mid-20s of adulthood.

How do you treat an altered passive eruption?

Garber & Salama 24 suggested that there are only two treatment options for cases of altered passive eruption: first, a simple gingivectomy to expose the hidden anatomy in cases of altered passive eruption type 1A; and, second, an apically repositioned full-thickness flap, with or without osseous resective surgery, in …

What is passive eruption in dentistry?

Passive dental eruption is defined as apical migration of gingival tissue until accommodation on, or very close to, the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ), determining gingival margin (GM) position. 6, 7. After disruption of the oral epithelium, both processes continue simultaneously.

What are the three stages of tooth eruption?

eruption is executed through 3 defined stages: 1) pre-eruptive tooth movement, 2) eruptive tooth movement, and 3) posteruptive tooth movement (Nanci 2017; Richman 2019; Fig. …

What are the stages of teeth eruption?

There are 3 phases used to chart what stage a person is at in their tooth development: Primary, Mixed and Permanent dentition stages. By the age of around 12 there will be 28 teeth in the mouth and by the age of 21 all of the permanent teeth have usually erupted, that’s 32 teeth!

What causes abnormal eruption of teeth?

Abnormal eruption is when a tooth emerges through the gum in the wrong place. This is often caused by abnormal timing of when primary teeth come out (too late), and permanent teeth come in (too early).

What is Supracrestal tissue attachment?

The supracrestal attached tissues are histologically composed of the junctional epithelium and supracrestal connective tissue attachment. Infringement within the supracrestal connective tissue attachment is associated with inflammation and loss of periodontal supporting tissue.

What causes gingival hyperplasia?

Gingival hyperplasia can occur as a direct result of inflammation. The inflammation is often caused by plaque buildup on the teeth from food, bacteria, and poor hygiene practices. The inflammation can make the gums tender and red, and it can trigger bleeding.

What is compensatory eruption?

Compensatory eruption is a condition defined by the shortening and vertical movement of teeth caused by grinding and tooth wear. As a patient grinds their teeth, over time tooth structure is worn away.

What is bone sounding in perio?


In order to operationally define biologic. width, Kois suggested that the restorative. dentist must determine the total distance. from the gingival crest to the alveolar crest. This procedure is termed bone sounding.

What are the classification of gingival hyperplasia?

There are several causes of gingival enlargement and they can be grouped into four categories: 1) inflammatory gingival enlargement, 2) medication-induced gingival enlargement, 3) hereditary gingival fibromatosis, and 4) systemic causes of gingival enlargement.

What drugs cause hyperplasia?

One class of drugs known to cause gingival hyperplasia is calcium channel blockers.

Other drugs that can cause gingival hyperplasia are:
  • amlodipine (Norvasc)
  • ethosuximide (Zarontin.
  • lamotrigine (Lamictal)
  • nifedipine (Adalat)
  • phenobarbitone (Luminal)
  • primidone (Mysoline)
  • topiramate (Topamax)
  • vigabatrin (Sabril)

What is the difference between gingival hyperplasia and hypertrophy?

Hyperplasia refers to an increased number of cells, and hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size of individual cells. As these identifications cannot be performed with a clinical examination and evaluation of the tissue, the term gingival enlargement is more properly applied.

How can you tell the difference between a pulp polyp and a gingival polyp?

Pulp polyp has its origin from the centre of the tooth, friable whereas gingival polyp from the gingiva, non friable and occupies the carious cavity of adjacent teeth.