What are the classes of Apicomplexa?

The Apicomplexa are a diverse group that includes organisms such as the coccidia, gregarines, piroplasms, haemogregarines, and plasmodia. Diseases caused by Apicomplexa include: Babesiosis (Babesia) Malaria (Plasmodium)
Phylum:Apicomplexa Levine, 1970
Classes & Subclasses Perkins, 2000

What are the characteristics of Apicomplexa?

A defining characteristic of the apicomplexa is a group of organelles found at one end–called the apical end–of the organism. This ‘apical complex’ includes secretory organelles known as micronemes and rhoptries, polar rings composed of microtubules, and in some species a conoid which lies within the polar rings.

What kingdom is Apicomplexa?

Chromista is a biological kingdom consisting of single-celled and multicellular eukaryotic species that share similar features in their photosynthetic organelles. It includes all protists whose plastids contain chlorophyll c, such as some algae, diatoms, oomycetes, and protozoans.


How many species are in the phylum Apicomplexa?

The Apicomplexa is a protozoan phylum of around 5000 species, the majority of which are parasitic, infecting a wide range of animals from mollusks to mammals (Cavalier-Smith 1993).

What are the common characteristics of the class Sporozoa?

Sporozoans are organisms that are characterized by being one-celled, non-motile, parasitic, and spore-forming. Most of them have an alternation of sexual and asexual stages in their life cycle. An example of sporozoan is the Plasmodium falciparum, which is the causative agent of malaria.

Is Apicomplexa a class?

… the phylum Apicomplexa into two classes: Aconoidasida and Conoidasida (Figure 1).

What is the definition of Sporozoa?

: any of a large class (Sporozoa) of strictly parasitic nonmotile protozoans that have a complex life cycle usually involving both asexual and sexual generations often in different hosts and include important pathogens (such as malaria parasites and babesias)

Why is Toxoplasma called Apicomplexa?

The Apicomplexa are named for their unique apical secretory organelles: the micronemes, the rhoptries and the dense granules. The contents of these organelles are critical for the successful invasion and intracellular survival of T. gondii.

What are the 3 modes of transmission for malaria?

Mode of Transmission: Malaria is transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Transfusion of blood from infected persons and use of contaminated needles and syringes are other potential modes of transmission. Congenital transmission of malaria may also occur.

Where did the Apicoplast come from?

(a) Where did the apicoplast come from? The apicoplast is clearly of secondary endosymbiotic origin, which refers to one eukaryote having engulfed and retained another eukaryote with a plastid obtained by primary endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterium-like prokaryote.

Is Apicomplexans photosynthetic?

Although apicomplexans apparently lack photosynthesis, they have a secondary plastid—the apicoplast (Fig. 1).

What is the apical complex used for?

The apical complex is instrumental in the host cell invasion processes [6], [7]. It provides both a semi-rigid framework to these apically pointed cells, and a focal point for secretory organelles that release various invasion factors that mediate interaction with, and invasion of, the host cell.

Is Plasmodium an Apicomplexan?

The Apicomplexa are a phylum of diverse obligate intracellular parasites including Plasmodium spp., the cause of malaria; Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum, opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised individuals; and Eimeria spp.

How do apicomplexa get nutrients?

Apicomplexans feed by absorbing either dissolved food ingested by the host (saprozoic nutrition) or the host’s cytoplasm and body fluids. Respiration and excretion occur by simple diffusion through the cell membrane. In the life cycle, sexual and asexual generations may alternate.

Are all apicomplexans parasites?

Apicomplexa/Lower classifications