What are the four stages of disc herniation?

Disc herniation is pathologically divided into 4 stages of herniated nucleus pulposus: 1) bulging, 2) protrusion, 3) extrusion, 4) sequestration.

What are the two different types of herniated discs?

Three Basic Types of Herniated Discs
  • Contained Herniation (Protrusion) Contained herniations are often referred to as “bulging discs.” They are caused when there is pressure between the vertebrae that causes the discs to protrude outward. …
  • Non-Contained Herniation (Disc Extrusion) …
  • Sequestered Herniation.

What is most common type of disc herniation and why?

Disc herniation is most common in the lumbar spine, followed by the cervical spine. There is a higher rate of disc herniation in the lumbar and cervical spine due to the biomechanical forces in the flexible part of the spine. The thoracic spine has a lower rate of disc herniation[4][5].

What type of disc herniation is most common?

The most common levels for disc herniation are L4-5 and L5-S1 which account for around 90% of symptomatic herniation’s. At the L5-S1 level, the only nerves that can be affected are L5 and the sacral nerves (primarily S1).

What are the 3 categories of disc?

The D, i, S, and C personality types

We identify them today as D (dominance), I (influence), S (steadiness), and C (conscientiousness). The DiSC® model looks at a continuum of pace (activity and energy level) and a continuum of skepticism or trust.

Is L4-L5 disc bulge serious?

An L4-L5 disc bulge or slip-disc (slipped disc) pinches and leads to serious health issues, including impotence, reproduction issues, infertility, loss of bowel and bladder control, or paralysis in one or both legs.

What are the three causes of herniated disc?

Factors that can increase the risk of a herniated disk include:
  • Weight. Excess body weight causes extra stress on the disks in the lower back.
  • Occupation. People with physically demanding jobs have a greater risk of back problems. …
  • Genetics. …
  • Smoking. …
  • Frequent driving. …
  • Being sedentary.

What is the treatment for L4-L5 disc bulge?

Both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medications are used to help relieve pain from L4-L5. Typically, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are usually tried first. For more severe pain, opioids, tramadol, and/or corticosteroids may be used. Physical therapy.

What causes L4 and L5 disc problems?

External trauma from falls or motor vehicle accidents may cause facet joint dislocation, fracture, and/or damage to the cauda equina at this level. Rarely, tumors and infections may affect the L4-L5 vertebrae and spinal segment.

Are there different levels of herniated discs?

There are four stages: (1) disc protrusion (2) prolapsed disc (3) disc extrusion (4) sequestered disc. Stages 1 and 2 are referred to as incomplete, where 3 and 4 are complete herniations. Pain resulting from herniation may be combined with a radiculopathy, which means neurological deficit.

What are the symptoms of a herniated disc at L5 S1?

The most common levels for a herniated disc are L4-5 and L5-S1. The onset of symptoms is characterized by a sharp, burning, stabbing pain radiating down the posterior or lateral aspect of the leg, to below the knee. Pain is generally superficial and localized, and is often associated with numbness or tingling.

Do you ever fully recover from a herniated disc?

Self care: In most cases, the pain from a herniated disc will get better within a couple days and completely resolve in 4 to 6 weeks. Restricting your activity, ice/heat therapy, and taking over the counter medications will help your recovery.

What is the difference between protrusion and extrusion?

A protrusion exists when only a few cartilage rings are torn and there is no actual leakage of the center material; the disc protrusion looks like a “bump”. With an extrusion, all the cartilage rings have torn in a small area, allowing the jelly-like material to flow out of the disc.

Is L5-S1 disc bulge curable?

Conditions affecting the L5-S1 spinal motion segment are usually treated with nonsurgical methods. If the lower back and/or leg symptoms worsen or do not improve despite these treatments, or in case of certain medical emergencies, such as tumors or cauda equina syndrome, surgery may be recommended.

Is L5-S1 disc bulge serious?

L5-S1 Disc Bulge Symptoms

This process is absolutely normal and is a part of aging and happens with everyone. L5-S1 bulging discs are most common as they take the stress and weight of the body. The symptoms experienced in the lower back can be terribly painful.