How do you classify mitral regurgitation?

The Carpentier classification divides mitral valve regurgitation into three types based on leaflet motion 1:
  1. type I: normal leaflet motion. annular dilation, leaflet perforation. …
  2. type II: excessive leaflet motion. papillary muscle rupture, chordal rupture, redundant chordae. …
  3. type III: restricted leaflet motion.

What is Carpentier classification?

Carpentier’s functional classification is used to describe the mechanism of mitral regurgitation (Fig. 1). 1 This classifi- cation is based on the opening and closing motions of the mitral leaflets. Patients with type I dysfunction have normal leaflet motion.

What is moderate to severe MR?

In moderate mitral regurgitation around 30% of the blood in the heart is leaking backwards. In severe mitral regurgitation about 50% of blood in the heart is leaking backward. In torrential mitral regurgitation the majority of the blood is going backwards, this happens in conditions such as flail leaflet.

What is mild MR and AR?

Mild mitral valve regurgitation usually does not cause any problems. As mitral valve regurgitation gets worse, the heart must work harder to pump blood to the body. The strain on the heart can cause the left lower chamber to widen. The heart muscle may become weak.

What are the stages of mitral valve regurgitation?

Mitral regurgitation conditions are staged based on symptoms and heart function.

There are three stages of mitral regurgitation:
  • Compensated stage.
  • Transitional stage.
  • Decompensated stage.

What is atrial MR?

The term atrial functional mitral regurgitation refers to a newly recognized disease entity in which mitral regurgitation occurs secondary to left atrial disease, without left ventricular dilatation and intrinsic mitral valve disease, typically in the setting of long-standing atrial fibrillation.

What is trivial MR and TR?

If the arotic root is obliquely aligned with it’s leaflets one may even get a physiological AR . While it is better to ignore these lesions , some call it as Trivial MR / TR/AR . This can be detected up to 40 % of individuals. What does trivial regurgitation mean to a doctor ? It means nothing .

What is mild MR and TR on echocardiogram?

Background: Mitral regurgitation (MR) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) frequently develop in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). Ventricular volume overload that occurs in patients with MR and TR may lead to progression of myocardial dysfunction.

What is trivial MR in 2d echo?

A:Trivial MR (Mitral regurgitation), Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) 59% and mild Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) could be present for a number of reasons and calls for no treatment.

What is flail leaflet?

Flail leaflet or leaflet flail refers to an abnormally increased leaflet mobility of the atrioventricular valves associated with valvular prolapse and a systolic excursion of the leaflet tip or edge into the atria.

What is functional mitral regurgitation?

Functional mitral regurgitation has traditionally been defined as a disorder of regional or global left ventricular remodeling in which anatomically normal leaflets fail to coapt adequately.

What is Myxomatous degeneration?

Myxomatous degeneration of the cardiac valves (MDMV) stands for the non-inflammatory progressive disarray of the valve structure caused by a defect in the mechanical integrity of the leaflet due to the altered synthesis and/or remodeling by type VI collagen.

What is secondary mitral regurgitation?

INTRODUCTION. Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR; also known as functional MR) is defined as MR that is a consequence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with normal mitral valve leaflets and chords. LV dysfunction may be due to coronary heart disease (CHD) or (nonischemic) cardiomyopathy.

What is the difference between primary and secondary MR?

Primary MR is caused by a primary abnormality of one or more components of the valve apparatus (leaflets, chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, annulus) in contrast to secondary MR, which is caused by another cardiac disease (such as coronary heart disease or a cardiomyopathy) (table 2).

Is ischemic MR primary or secondary?

Ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a subtype of secondary mitral regurgitation (MR), which is a complication of ischaemic heart disease. Valvular involvement can be primary (organic) or secondary (functional).

What is the most common cause of mitral regurgitation?

Mitral valve prolapse: Prolapse is the most common cause of mitral regurgitation, and features extra tissue in the valve that keeps it from closing.

What is primary vs secondary mitral regurgitation?

Primary mitral regurgitation is a disease of the valve (or chordae), and secondary mitral regurgitation is a disease of the left ventricle or left atrium.

Is mild MR normal?

People with mild to moderate MR may never develop symptoms or serious complications. Even in people with severe MR, there may be no signs or symptoms until the left ventricle fails, an abnormal heart rhythm develops (atrial fibrillation), or pulmonary hypertension occurs.


Electrocardiography. Findings on electrocardiography may include the following: Ischemia or infarction in the inferior or posterior leads is present when acute mitral regurgitation (MR) is due to papillary muscle rupture.

Is mitral regurgitation progressive?

Mitral regurgitation is a progressive disease

The determinants of progression are anatomic changes, with more rapid progression in patients with mitral valve prolapse, in particular new flail leaflet, and in patients with an enlarging mitral annulus.

Does mitral valve regurgitation affect ejection fraction?

Because mitral regurgitation lowers the total impedance of left ventricular ejection (much of each stroke volume escapes via the low resistance mitral valvular “back door”), the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) should be greater than normal in the presence of mitral regurgitation.

When should an echo mitral valve prolapse be repeated?

Repeated echocardiograms are needed only if cardiovascular symptoms develop, if a change in physical findings suggests progression of mitral regurgitation or when high-risk characteristics are present on the initial echocardiogram. High-risk patients should undergo a follow-up examination once a year.

How is mild MR treated?

Medications to treat symptoms and prevent complications, such as blood clots. Surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve.

Types of medications that may be prescribed for mitral valve regurgitation include:
  1. Diuretics. …
  2. Blood thinners (anticoagulants). …
  3. Blood pressure medications.