What are two classifications of TB?

There are two types of TB conditions: TB disease and latent TB infection.

How many types of pulmonary TB are there?

Broadly classified, there are two types of tuberculosis infections. In active tuberculosis, the individual who is carrying the organism has active symptoms and can transmit the infection to other people. In latent tuberculosis, the individual carries the bacteria but does not exhibit any symptoms whatsoever.

How can Mycobacterium tuberculosis be classified?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.

What are the 3 types of tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis: Types
  • Active TB Disease. Active TB is an illness in which the TB bacteria are rapidly multiplying and invading different organs of the body. …
  • Miliary TB. Miliary TB is a rare form of active disease that occurs when TB bacteria find their way into the bloodstream. …
  • Latent TB Infection.

What are the 4 stages of TB?

Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection that usually infects the lungs. It may also affect the kidneys, spine, and brain. Being infected with the TB bacterium is not the same as having active tuberculosis disease. There are 3 stages of TB—exposure, latent, and active disease.

What is the difference between tuberculosis and pulmonary tuberculosis?

The bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis (TB), a contagious, airborne infection that destroys body tissue. Pulmonary TB occurs when M. tuberculosis primarily attacks the lungs. However, it can spread from there to other organs.

What is pulmonary tuberculosis?

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) that involves the lungs but may spread to other organs. TB is a contagious disease that can infect anyone exposed to MTB.

What are the five symptoms of tuberculosis?

Typical symptoms of TB include:
  • a persistent cough that lasts more than 3 weeks and usually brings up phlegm, which may be bloody.
  • weight loss.
  • night sweats.
  • high temperature.
  • tiredness and fatigue.
  • loss of appetite.
  • swellings in the neck.

Why TB is called Koch’s disease?

On March 24, 1882, Dr. Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that causes tuberculosis (TB). During this time, TB killed one out of every seven people living in the United States and Europe.

How many types of TB tests are there?

There are two types of tests used to diagnose TB: a blood test and a skin test. Your results from either test won’t reveal whether you have latent or active TB. Instead, they’re used to determine if you should be treated and with what type of medication.

How is latent and active TB different?

People with latent TB do not have any symptoms and cannot spread TB. If they do not get treatment, however, they may develop active TB disease in the future, spread the disease to others, and feel quite ill. People with active TB disease can be treated and cured if they get medical help.

What is the difference between miliary TB and disseminated TB?

Good to know: The term miliary TB is used by some interchangeably with disseminated TB. However, miliary TB in fact refers more specifically to disseminated TB which presents with a millet-seed-like appearance on a chest x-ray, when the disease is spread by blood throughout the lungs (see FAQs).

What is extra pulmonary TB?

EPTB refers to TB involving organs other than the lungs (e.g., pleura, lymph nodes, abdomen, genitourinary tract, skin, joints and bones, or meninges). A patient with both pulmonary and EPTB is classified as a case of PTB. For example, miliary TB is classified as PTB because there are lesions in the lungs.

Can chest xray detect latent TB?

Chest Radiograph

These abnormalities may suggest TB, but cannot be used to definitively diagnose TB. However, a chest radiograph may be used to rule out the possibility of pulmonary TB in a person who has had a positive reaction to a TST or TB blood test and no symptoms of disease.

What is the best treatment for latent TB?

The medications used to treat latent TB infection include the following: Isoniazid (INH) Rifapentine (RPT) Rifampin (RIF)

Short course regimens include:
  • Three months of once-weekly isoniazid plus rifapentine (3HP)
  • Four months of daily rifampin (4R)
  • Three months of daily isoniazid plus rifampin (3HR)

What tests confirm pulmonary TB?

The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) or the TB blood test can be used to test for M. tuberculosis infection. Additional tests are required to confirm TB disease. The Mantoux tuberculin skin test is performed by injecting a small amount of fluid called tuberculin into the skin in the lower part of the arm.

Is there a blood test for latent TB?

There are two kinds of tests used to detect TB bacteria in the body: the TB skin test (TST) and TB blood tests. A positive TB skin test or TB blood test only tells that a person has been infected with TB bacteria. It does not tell whether the person has latent TB infection (LTBI) or has progressed to TB disease.

Can CT scan detect latent TB?

Chest computed tomography is more likely to show latent tuberculosis foci than simple chest radiography in liver transplant candidates. Liver Transpl.

What are 4 ways to test for TB?

TB disease can be diagnosed by medical history, physical examination, chest x-ray, and other laboratory tests. TB disease is treated by taking several drugs as recommended by a health care provider. If a person does not have TB disease, but has TB bacteria in the body, then latent TB infection is diagnosed.

What is the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis?

Pulmonary TB

The usual treatment is: 2 antibiotics (isoniazid and rifampicin) for 6 months. 2 additional antibiotics (pyrazinamide and ethambutol) for the first 2 months of the 6-month treatment period.