What is ZMC fracture?
The term ZMC fracture describes a spectrum of injuries that includes nondisplaced fractures, fractures displaced at an isolated buttress, and severely comminuted fractures with bone loss. Information about the degree and severity of the overall injury can be extrapolated from the location of the fractures.
Where is ZMC fracture?
Zygomaticomaxillary Complex (ZMC) fractures result from blunt trauma to the periorbital area (viz. malar eminence). ZMC fractures are also referred to as tripod, trimalar, tetrapod, quadripod, or malar fractures.
When should a ZMC fracture be fixed?
The most common indication for surgery in ZMC fractures is displacement and rotation, and most displaced ZMC fractures should be treated surgically. If reduction is not performed properly, facial asymmetry will be prominent, as the result of lowering the malar prominent point .
How do you treat a ZMC fracture?
Most zygomatic complex fractures can be treated solely by an intraoral approach and rigid fixation at the zygomaticomaxillary buttress. Further exposure of the zygomaticofrontal junction or inferior orbital rim is necessary for severely displaced fractures, which require additional fixation.
What is Le Fort classification?
The classification of Le Fort fractures is based on the plane of injury: type I is a horizontal injury, type II is a pyramidal injury, and type III is a very extensive transverse injury that often results in a craniofacial dislocation.
What nerves are frequently involved in ZMC fractures?
Paresthesia of the face is a common sequela of a ZMC fracture given its proximity to sensory nerves such as the infraorbital nerve, the zygomaticofacial nerve, and the zygomaticotemporal nerve (all branches of cranial nerve V2).
How do I know if my zygomatic bone is broken?
Broken cheekbone/upper jaw (zygomatic maxillary fracture)
- Flatness of the cheek.
- Altered sensation underneath the eye on the affected side.
- Problems with eyesight.
- Pain with jaw movement.
Where is the Temporozygomatic suture?
The temporozygomatic suture is a cranial suture between the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the zygomatic bone on the lateral surface of the zygomatic arch.
Where is the zygomatic arch?
zygomatic arch, bridge of bone extending from the temporal bone at the side of the head around to the maxilla (upper jawbone) in front and including the zygomatic (cheek) bone as a major portion.
Which bone is involved with a tripod fracture?
tri·pod frac·ture. a facial fracture involving the three supports of the malar prominence, the arch of the zygomatic bone, the zygomatic process of the frontal bone, and the zygomatic process of the maxillary bone.
What are the 4 main sutures of skull?
The major sutures of the skull include the following:
- Metopic suture. This extends from the top of the head down the middle of the forehead, toward the nose. …
- Coronal suture. This extends from ear to ear. …
- Sagittal suture. …
- Lambdoid suture.
What is bregma and lambda?
Bregma was defined as the meeting point of the anterior coronal suture and sagittal suture (Fig. 1, right). Lambda was defined as the meeting point of the lambdoid suture and sagittal suture.
What are the 3 joints in the skull?
There are three types of fibrous joints: sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses. Sutures are found only in the skull and possess short fibers of connective tissue that hold the skull bones tightly in place (Figure 19.23). Figure 19.23. Sutures are fibrous joints found only in the skull.
What are the 22 bones of the skull?
The skull (22 bones) is divisible into two parts: (1) the cranium, which lodges and protects the brain, consists of eight bones (Occipital, Two Parietals, Frontal, Two Temporals, Sphenoidal, Ethmoidal) and the skeleton of the face, of fourteen (Two Nasals, Two Maxillae, Two Lacrimals, Two Zygomatics, Two Palatines, Two …
What is other name of skull?
The skull is also called the cranium. The function of the cranium are; (a) It protects and holds the brain.
What is the longest bone in human body?
The femur is one of the most researched bones in the human anatomy and forensic medicine. As the longest bone in the human body, it is well preserved in skeletal remains.
What are the 2 ways to classify joints?
There are two ways to classify joints: on the basis of their structure or on the basis of their function. The structural classification divides joints into fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints depending on the material composing the joint and the presence or absence of a cavity in the joint.
What are the 6 main types of joints?
A joint is the part of the body where two or more bones meet to allow movement. Generally speaking, the greater the range of movement, the higher the risk of injury because the strength of the joint is reduced. The six types of freely movable joint include ball and socket, saddle, hinge, condyloid, pivot and gliding.
Which is the weakest bone in our body?
The weakest and softest bone in the human is the clavicle or collar bone. Because it is a tiny bone which runs horizontally across your breastbone & collarbone, it is simple to shatter.
Which is the smallest bone?
The stapes is the smallest bone in the human body.