What are 4 teratogens?

Teratogens are classified into four types: physical agents, metabolic conditions, infection, and finally, drugs and chemicals.

What are 2 common teratogens?

Alcohol and smoking are two common teratogens. Exposure to either of them can lead to developmental anomalies, miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm labor, and a variety of other pregnancy complications.

What are teratogenic drugs Example?

Teratogenic drugs and birth defects

ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors. angiotensin II antagonist. isotretinoin (an acne drug) alcohol.

What is a known teratogen?

A teratogen is any agent that disrupts a baby’s development when a person is exposed to it during pregnancy. Known teratogens include alcohol, smoking, toxic chemicals, radiation, viruses, some maternal health conditions, and certain prescription drugs. Some teratogens are more concerning than others.

What are the 5 teratogens?

Teratogenic agents include infectious agents (rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes simplex, toxoplasma, syphilis, etc.); physical agents (ionizing agents, hyperthermia); maternal health factors (diabetes, maternal PKU); environmental chemicals (organic mercury compounds, polychlorinated biphenyl or PCB, …

Is diabetes a teratogen?

Maternal diabetes mellitus is one of the strongest human teratogens. Despite recent advances in the fields of clinical embryology, experimental teratology and preventive medicine, diabetes-related perturbations of the maternofetal unit maintain a considerable impact on the Healthcare System.

Is stress a teratogen?

Maternal psychological stress has essentially been conceptualized as a teratogen, that is, an agent that can generate deleterious perinatal and/or developmental outcomes.

Is caffeine a teratogen?

In humans, caffeine does not present any teratogenic risk. The increased risk of the most common congenital malformations entailed by moderate consumption of caffeine is very slight.

Why is alcohol a teratogen?

Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can have direct toxic and teratogenic effects on a fetus, because of its ability to pass directly and rapidly through the placenta into fetal organs including the developing brain [1].

Do teratogens cause birth defects?

As a baby grows in the womb, teratogens may affect parts of the baby’s body as they are forming. For example, the neural tube closes in the first 3 to 5 weeks of the pregnancy. During this time, teratogens can cause neural tube defects such as spina bifida.

What are teratogens and mutagens?

Mutagens and teratogens are chemical, physical or biological agents that are lethal to individuals. While mutagens alter the DNA sequence of an individual, teratogens cause harmful effects on the developing foetus during pregnancy.

What is teratogenic waste?

Waste is considered toxic if it is poisonous, radioactive, explosive, carcinogenic (causing cancer), mutagenic (causing damage to chromosomes), teratogenic (causing birth defects), or bioaccumulative (that is, increasing in concentration at the higher ends of food chains).

Do carcinogens cause birth defects?

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new study suggests that exposure of a fetus to common carcinogens during the late stages of pregnancy may be even more harmful than exposure after birth, causing long-lasting genetic damage that could lead to cancer in childhood, young adulthood or even middle age.

What are mutagens?

A mutagen is a chemical or physical agent capable of inducing changes in DNA called mutations. Examples of mutagens include tobacco products, radioactive substances, x-rays, ultraviolet radiation and a wide variety of chemicals.

What is the difference between mutagen and carcinogen?

Well, first we learned that mutagens are chemical or physical substances or events that can increase the probability of genetic mutations occurring. And next we learned that carcinogens are things that lead to cancer, and while they can be mutagenic as well, they aren’t necessarily mutagenic.

Can chemicals in a mother’s body have an effect on her infant?

Prenatal chemical exposure can have lasting detrimental impacts on the lives of children and can cause diseases that show up in adulthood. Harmful chemicals cause the most disease when they are present during fetal development, because organ systems are being developed and the rate of growth is very fast.

What are 3 types of mutagens?

Mutagens can be physical mutagens, chemical mutagens, or biological mutagens. The ability of a substance to induce the alterations in the base pairs of DNA or mutation is known as mutagenicity.

Is alcohol a mutagen?

Alcohol is mutagenic, cancerogenic and teratogenic in man. Ethanol is mutagenic via its first metabolite, acetaldehyde. This is substantiated by the findings that acetaldehyde induces chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and cross-links between DNA strands.