Which of the following are characteristics of an ideal antimicrobial drug quizlet?

What are the characteristics of the ideal antimicrobial drug? – Selectively toxic to the microbe but nontoxic host cells.

What are the 5 major targets of antimicrobial agents?

Five bacterial targets have been exploited in the development of antimicrobial drugs: cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, ribonucleic acid synthesis, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, and intermediary metabolism.

What are the 6 factors that influence the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents?

Generally, several factors influence the antimicrobial activity of biocides, such as the temperature, time of exposure, amount of organic material, growth conditions and growth phase of the microorganisms on which they are applied (Russell, 1999) .

What is the best antimicrobial agent?

Penicillin is most effective against gram-positive bacteria, as their cell walls are mostly peptidoglycan, rather than gram-negative bacteria who also have a lipopolysaccharide and protein layer.

What are the four classes of antimicrobial agents?

All such processes are targets for antibiotics; therefore, antibacterials, which interfere or disturb these processes in different ways, can be subdivided into four groups: such as cell wall synthesis inhibitors, inhibitors of membrane function, inhibitors of protein synthesis, and inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis.

What three factors play a role in antimicrobial?

The main drivers of antimicrobial resistance include the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials; lack of access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for both humans and animals; poor infection and disease prevention and control in health-care facilities and farms; poor access to quality, affordable medicines, …

How do you choose an antimicrobial agent?

1. The antimicrobial agent selected must be known or proven by sensitivity testing to be the most effec- tive agent available for eradication of the organism. 2. If several equally active agents are available, the one with the lowest potential for producing adverse effects must be chosen.

What are the types of antimicrobial agents?

Examples: Antibiotics, antiseptics, and disinfectants.

How do you evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents?

The disk-diffusion method is used to test the effectiveness of a chemical disinfectant against a particular microbe. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test helps determine the susceptibility of a microorganism to various antimicrobial drugs.

What are the 5 modes of antimicrobial action?

Basis of Antimicrobial Action

Various antimicrobial agents act by interfering with (1) cell wall synthesis, (2) plasma membrane integrity, (3) nucleic acid synthesis, (4) ribosomal function, and (5) folate synthesis.

What are the 5 D’s of antimicrobial stewardship?

Antibiotic stewardship was implemented in 2011 and focuses on five ‘D’s’: Drug, De-escalation of therapy, Discontinuation of therapy, Dose and Diagnosis.

What are the main targets of antibiotics?

In principal, there are three main antibiotic targets in bacteria: The cell wall or membranes that surrounds the bacterial cell. The machineries that make the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. The machinery that produce proteins (the ribosome and associated proteins)

What is the main goal of antimicrobial treatment?

The goal of antimicrobial therapy is, therefore, to eradicate bacteria at the site of infection. Bacterial eradication is not usually assessed as a primary endpoint within the limits of currently recommended clinical trial design.

What are the 7 core components of antimicrobial stewardship?

In this new document, CDC continues to outline seven core elements of hospital antibiotic stewardship: Leadership Support, Accountability, Pharmacy Expertise (formerly Drug Expertise), Action, Tracking, Reporting and Education.

What are the factors to be considered in choosing an antimicrobial agent?

Host Factors to Be Considered in Selection of Antimicrobial Agents
  • Renal and Hepatic Function. …
  • Age. …
  • Genetic Variation. …
  • Pregnancy and Lactation. …
  • History of Allergy or Intolerance. …
  • History of Recent Antimicrobial Use.

What are the 3 types of antimicrobials?

There are three types of public health antimicrobials: sterilizers, disinfectants, and sanitizers.

What are the classical characteristics of antimicrobial peptides?

Antimicrobial peptides are arranged parallel to the cell membrane. Their hydrophilic end faces the solution, and their hydrophobic end faces the phospholipid bilayer. AMPs will cover the membrane surface that similar to a carpet and destroy the cell membrane in a ‘detergent’-like manner (Oren and Shai, 1998).

What is the main principle of antimicrobial stewardship?

Antimicrobial stewardship is about avoiding unnecessary use of antimicrobials and making sure that whenever an antimicrobial is used, it is used with care to minimise the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Consumers, doctors, nurse and pharmacists are important in antimicrobial stewardship.