What are the different types of alpha thalassemia?

Alpha thalassemia occurs when some or all of the 4 genes that make hemoglobin (the alpha-globin genes) are missing or damaged.

There are 4 types of alpha thalassemia:
  • Alpha thalassemia silent carrier. …
  • Alpha thalassemia carrier. …
  • Hemoglobin H disease. …
  • Alpha thalassemia major.

What is thalassemia classification?

There are two main types of thalassemia: Alpha thalassemia occurs when a gene or genes related to the alpha globin protein are missing or changed (mutated). Beta thalassemia occurs when similar gene defects affect production of the beta globin protein.

What are the three types of thalassemia?

There are three main types of the disease: beta thalassemia major, intermedia, and minor.

What are the 4 types of hemoglobin?

Many different types of hemoglobin (Hb) exist. The most common ones are HbA, HbA2, HbE, HbF, HbS, HbC, HbH, and HbM. Healthy adults only have significant levels of only HbA and HbA2. Some people may also have small amounts of HbF.

What is the difference between alpha and beta thalassemia?

When thalassemia is called “alpha” or “beta,” this refers to the part of hemoglobin that isn’t being made. If either the alpha or beta part is not made, there aren’t enough building blocks to make normal amounts of hemoglobin. Low alpha is called alpha thalassemia. Low beta is called beta thalassemia.

What is the normal range of thalassemia?

Hematologic Diagnosis

Thalassemia major is characterized by reduced Hb level (<7 g/dl), mean corpuscolar volume (MCV) > 50 < 70 fl and mean corpuscolar Hb (MCH) > 12< 20 pg. Thalassemia intermedia is characterized by Hb level between 7 and 10 g/dl, MCV between 50 and 80 fl and MCH between 16 and 24 pg.

What is the main cause of thalassemia?

Thalassemia is caused by mutations in the DNA of cells that make hemoglobin — the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body. The mutations associated with thalassemia are passed from parents to children.

What is thalassemia class 12 biology?

Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder wherein the body produces an inadequate amount of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is a protein molecule that carries oxygen in the red blood cells. This disorder causes the destruction of the red blood cells which leads to anaemia.

What are the 3 main causes of anemia?

Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, and high rates of red blood cell destruction.

How is alpha thalassemia treated?

Blood transfusions—are the main treatment for people with severe alpha thalassemia. This treatment provides healthy red blood cells with normal hemoglobin. Because red blood cells only live about three months, repeated transfusions may be needed to maintain a healthy supply of red blood cells.

Is alpha thalassemia life threatening?

Alpha thalassemia major (also called hydrops fetalis). In the past, almost all babies with alpha thalassemia major died before or shortly after birth from complications of extreme anemia. After they’re born, babies with alpha thalassemia major need frequent blood transfusions to survive.

How do you test for alpha thalassemia?

A DNA test is needed to make a diagnosis of alpha thalassemia.

The following blood tests are done to check for the condition and to tell if you are a carrier and can pass the disorder on to your children:
  1. Complete blood count (CBC). …
  2. Hemoglobin electrophoresis. …
  3. Ferritin. …
  4. DNA testing.

Which type of alpha thalassemia is not survivable?

Hydrops fetalis (alpha thalassemia major) is incompatible with life and requires identification in utero and in utero transfusions if the fetus is to survive and be born.

What is alpha thalassemia symptoms?

In people with the characteristic features of alpha thalassemia, a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin prevents enough oxygen from reaching the body’s tissues. Affected individuals also have a shortage of red blood cells (anemia ), which can cause pale skin, weakness, fatigue, and more serious complications.

Can people with alpha thalassemia take iron?

Individuals with mild forms of alpha thalassemia may not require specific treatment except as needed for management of low hemoglobin levels. In some patients, supplementation of iron or folic acid may be useful. Patients with more severe anemia may require lifelong transfusion therapy.

How common is alpha thalassemia trait?

This is called the trans form of alpha thalassemia trait. The trans form of alpha thalassemia trait (α-/α-) is common in African-Americans (20–30 percent) and people of African descent. 2. People with the second type of alpha thalassemia trait have 2 missing alpha globin genes on the same chromosome (αα/–).

What is alpha thalassemia major?

Alpha thalassemia is an inherited blood disease that affects the production of hemoglobin and the ability of red blood cells to provide the body with enough oxygen.