What are the 2 classification of obstruction?

According to the site of obstruction, mechanical bowel obstruction can be classified as: Large bowel obstruction (LBO): obstruction at the level of the cecum, colon, or rectum. Small bowel obstruction (SBO): obstruction at the level of the duodenum, jejunum, or ileum.

What is the most common type of bowel obstruction?

The most common causes of intestinal obstruction in adults are: Intestinal adhesions — bands of fibrous tissue in the abdominal cavity that can form after abdominal or pelvic surgery. Hernias — portions of intestine that protrude into another part of your body. Colon cancer.

What are three causes of bowel obstruction?

Bowel Obstruction Causes and Risk Factors

It can get inflamed and swell up. Part of your intestine can slide into another part like a telescope (intussusception). Scar tissue or a hernia could make your bowel too narrow for anything to pass through. A tumor or other type of growth inside your bowel could block it.

What is the 3 6 9 Rule of bowel obstruction?

It is often difficult to differentiate between normal small and large bowel, but this often becomes easier when the bowel is abnormally distended. The upper limit of normal diameter of the bowel is generally accepted as 3cm for the small bowel, 6cm for the colon and 9cm for the caecum (3/6/9 rule).

What is the most common cause of small bowel obstruction?

Small bowel obstructions are usually caused by scar tissue, hernia, or cancer. In the United States, most obstructions occur as a result of prior surgeries. The bowel often forms bands of scar (called adhesions) after being handled during an operation.

What is the most common cause of large bowel obstruction?

The most common cause of large bowel obstruction is colorectal cancer. This activity explains the risk factors, evaluation, and management of large bowel obstruction and highlights the importance of an interprofessional team in enhancing care for affected patients.

What are the 4 types of bowel sounds?

When it comes to classifying bowel sounds, there are three distinct types: Normal bowel sounds. Hypoactive bowel sounds. Hyperactive bowel sounds.

How can you tell the difference between LBO and SBO?

Abdominal radiography can differentiate LBO from SBO. CT has become the standard imaging procedure for patients with both SBO and LBO. CT is highly accurate and well tolerated and allows acquisition of images in all patients; CT also helps distinguish the cause of LBO and its complications.

What is the difference between ileus and bowel obstruction?

Ileus defined as nonmechanical obstruction of bowel usually secondary to inhibition of peristalsis. Small bowel obstruction defined as mechanical obstruction of small bowel due to adhesions, mass, volvulus or other internal or external compression.

What are the warning signs of a bowel obstruction?

Symptoms of intestinal obstruction are:
  • Severe pain in your belly.
  • Severe cramping sensations in your belly.
  • Throwing up.
  • Feelings of fullness or swelling in your belly.
  • Loud sounds from your belly.
  • Feeling gassy, but being unable to pass gas.
  • Constipation (being unable to pass stool)

What is the most common complication of small bowel obstruction?

A bowel obstruction, whether partial or complete, can lead to serious and life threatening conditions if left untreated. The intestine can get swollen from the trapped air, fluid, and food. This swelling can make the intestine less able to absorb fluid. This leads to dehydration and kidney failure.

Can a bowel obstruction be cleared without surgery?

An intestinal obstruction is painful and potentially dangerous, and typically requires hospital care. However, you won’t necessarily need surgery. Many blockages can be resolved with a non-invasive procedure, and patients often never have a recurrence.

How long does it take for a bowel obstruction to clear on its own?

Sometimes it’s only a few days, sometimes as long as three weeks. With fluids, survival time may be extended by a few weeks or even a month or two. With a bowel obstruction, things may go better than expected, but it’s important to prepare for sudden, unexpected changes.

What is the initial treatment for small bowel obstruction?

Initial emergency department (ED) treatment of small-bowel obstruction (SBO) consists of aggressive fluid resuscitation, bowel decompression, administration of analgesia and antiemetic as indicated clinically, early surgical consultation, and administration of antibiotics.

What is the difference between small and large bowel obstruction?

Small and large bowel obstruction have many overlapping symptoms. However, quality, timing, and presentation differ. Commonly in SBO, abdominal pain is described as intermittent and colicky but improves with vomiting, while the pain associated with LBO is continuous.

What medications cause bowel obstruction?

  • Opioid pain relievers. Also called narcotics, opioids treat pain that is severe and that has not improved with other, milder pain medications. …
  • NSAIDs. …
  • Antihistamines. …
  • Tricyclic antidepressants. …
  • Urinary incontinence medications. …
  • Iron supplements. …
  • Blood pressure medications. …
  • Anti-nausea medications.

What medication should be avoided in bowel obstruction?

Avoid stimulant laxatives (senna, bisacodyl, danthron) if patient has colic. Stop all oral laxatives in complete obstruction. †Dexamethasone (6mg to 16mg) parenterally for 4 to 7 days may reverse partial obstruction.

How do doctors remove a bowel obstruction?

The surgeon makes a cut in your belly to see your intestines. Sometimes, the surgery can be done using a laparoscope, which means smaller cuts are used. The surgeon locates the area of your intestine (bowel) that is blocked and unblocks it. Any damaged parts of your bowel will be repaired or removed.

How do hospitals treat bowel obstruction?

These treatments include using liquids or air (enemas) or small mesh tubes (stents) to open up the blockage. Surgery is almost always needed when the intestine is completely blocked or when the blood supply is cut off. You may need a colostomy or an ileostomy after surgery.

Which medicine is best for intestinal obstruction?

Opioids and anti-emetics (usually dopamine antagonists, e.g. haloperidol) can be administered (IV or SQ) to relieve pain and nausea. Antimuscarinic/anticholinergic drugs (e.g. atropine, scopolamine) are used to manage colicky pain due to smooth muscle spasm and bowel wall distension.