How many types of ACS are there?

There are three types of acute coronary syndromes: ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or heart attack (STEMI) Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or heart attack (NSTEMI) Unstable angina‌‌

What is type2 ACS?

In contrast to MI due to an acute coronary syndrome (type 1 MI), type 2 MI is defined as a mismatch in myocardial oxygen supply and demand that is not attributed to unstable coronary artery disease (CAD).

Which 2 diagnostic tests are used to determine the type of ACS?

Serial measurements of either cardiac troponin (cTn) I or T (cTnI or cTnT) can be used to evaluate patients for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, recent evidence suggests that while cTnI is specific to myocardial injury, the cTnT assay may also detect proteins released in response to skeletal muscle injury.

What are the 3 types of ACS?

Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), ST-elevation MI (STEMI), and unstable angina are the three traditional types of ACS.

What is the most common cause of ACS?

ACS is a manifestation of CHD (coronary heart disease) and usually a result of plaque disruption in coronary arteries (atherosclerosis). The common risk factors for the disease are smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, male sex, physical inactivity, family obesity, and poor nutritional practices.

What are three complications that can occur following a myocardial infarction?

Complications of MI include arrhythmic, mechanical, and inflammatory (early pericarditis and post-MI syndrome) sequelae, as well as left ventricular mural thrombus (LVMT) (see the following image).

How do you prevent ACS?

There is a lot you can do to help prevent ACS.
  1. Eat a heart-healthy diet. Have plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean meats. …
  2. Get exercise. …
  3. Lose weight, if you are overweight.
  4. Quit smoking. …
  5. Get preventive health screenings. …
  6. Manage health conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes.

How do you diagnose ACS?

How is it diagnosed and treated?
  1. A blood test can show evidence that heart cells are dying.
  2. An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) can diagnose an acute coronary syndrome by measuring the heart’s electrical activity.

What is the treatment for ACS?

Thrombolytics (clot busters) help dissolve a blood clot that’s blocking an artery. Nitroglycerin improves blood flow by temporarily widening blood vessels. Antiplatelet drugs help prevent blood clots from forming and include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), prasugrel (Effient) and others.

Why does ACS cause chest pain?

These potentially life-threatening conditions occur when a blockage causes blood flow to your heart to suddenly slow or stop. People with ACS can experience unstable angina or a heart attack (myocardial infarction). Common signs include chest pain or pressure (angina), shortness of breath (dyspnea) or dizziness.

What is the drug of choice for myocardial infarction?

The pain of myocardial infarction is usually severe and requires potent opiate analgesia. Intravenous diamorphine 2.5–5 mg (repeated as necessary) is the drug of choice and is not only a powerful analgesic but also has a useful anxiolytic effect.

What is the difference between ACS and CAD?

Introduction and definitions

On the other hand, CAD is characterized by atherosclerosis in coronary arteries and can be asymptomatic, whereas ACS almost always presents with a symptom, such as unstable angina, and is frequently associated with myocardial infarction (MI) regardless of the presence of CAD (2).

What are atypical symptoms of ACS?

Atypical pain is frequently defined as epigastric or back pain or pain that is described as burning, stabbing, or characteristic of indigestion. Typical symptoms usually include chest, arm, or jaw pain described as dull, heavy, tight, or crushing.

What causes hypotension in ACS?

Hypotension: Indicates ventricular dysfunction due to myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction (MI), or acute valvular dysfunction. Hypertension: May precipitate angina or reflect elevated catecholamine levels due to anxiety or to exogenous sympathomimetic stimulation.